Welcome to my Robin Blog.

It was suggested to me that I start a Blog on my ultralight project the "Robin". I have been working on this project for 4 years. On one of my first days at Vought aircraft, a stress man and future friend named Kenny Andersen walked up to me and said, "Aren't you the Mark Calder that designed the Wren Ultralight" Why yes I am I said. "well what have you done lately?" That was the genesis of the Robin design. The first 2.5 have been spent in the design phase. Actual construction started 1.5 years ago and has actually progressed smoothly. There have been a number of changes from the onset, but for the most part it is following my original concept. I will eventually sell plans for the Robin and make available all molded parts, fittings and welded assemblies. The Robin is designed to FAA part 103 and as such requires no pilots license to fly, although I think its a good idea to actually learn how to fly!! The actual name "Robin" was my Daughter Jamie's idea, I asked her to name the design based on my "cute little bird" theme (Wren)

Every good aircraft design has a "Mission" in mind before the actual design is started. A good designer will refer back to this mission every time a design decision must be made. Good design after all is just a series of good design decisions. On my first Ultralight design the Wren, the mission was to design a high performance low powered aircraft. The reduction of drag was the prime concern. I had been flying powered Hang gliders prior to this and because of this experience, I placed a high priority on climb performance. While most designers chose bigger engines, I chose lower drag and high aspect ratio (low span loading) wings. The Wren could out climb conventional Ultralight with up to 65 hp. The Robin follows this philosophy, but tries to improve on the performance of the Wren. Ultralight are not built by "rich" people, they offer an inexpensive means to enjoy one of the greatest experiences of my life, low speed soaring and flying.

Design Concept

The cost of an aircraft is directly proportional to its weight. , if low drag can be achieved then lighter and cheaper engines can be used. The Robin expands on the design mission of the Wren by using a longer span (40') wing and using a low speed laminar flow airfoil, (Wortmann FX 170) The leading edge of the wing on the prototype is molded fiber glass. The spar has been placed at 33% of the wing chord because the chosen airfoil is laminar over the first 32%. The aft covering is light weight Dacron Fabric. The leading edge of this fabric is purposely pinked and placed at the 32% chord point to facilitate laminar transition and elimination of separation bubbles. The main difference between the original design of the Robin and the current final design is the elimination of the single mono wheel retractable landing gear. Part 103 does not allow for a retractable landing gear. Which is really unfortunate because I spent a long time designing a really neat mechanism!!

In the course of the 4 years I have worked on the Robin, the structural design concept has evolved radically. Originally I was going to draw on the design of the Wren and use essential the same construction concepts. The original design of the Wren was heavily influenced by my Friend Steve Wood's Sky Pup design. I lived in Wichita Kansas and worked at Cessna Aircraft along with Steve. I watched his progress on the Pup and was very impressed with his concepts. I adapted the concept of using Styrofoam sheeting as the shear panels for the fuselage and the wing ribs. I did not however use the foam for the shear webs of the wing as Steve did. I originally wanted to build the fuselage of the Robin in a similar manner. Weight and the desire to not use foam for the basic structure due to the danger of fuel leaking eventually drove me to a all wood fuselage design. The wings were designed to take advantage of the Graphlite carbon pultruded material pioneered for the experimental aircraft by Jim Marske. I was familiar with this product from my experience at Bell Helicopter where it was considered in the construction of the V-22 wing.


I had just laid up the Spinner and Spinner backing plate. I had to wait 72 hours for my resin system to cure sufficiently to be able to trim and sand it. That is very important!! I mounted the spinner backing plate on my Lathe. I then made a self centering coupler for the tip of the Spinner. I used this coupling to mount the spinner to the arbor. After a little tweaking I was able to dial the spinner in with less than .004" of run out.

cutting prop hub hole
this is a live shot of the running lathe. I am cutting the prop hub centering hole. I mounted the backing plate between two wooden plates. The hole in the plate was larger than the center shaft. This allowed me to adjust the outside run out with a dial indicator. once it was perfect, I drilled 4 holes and bolted the plate to the wood backing plate. this locked it in for good. Once the backing plate was spinning true, I set the spinner in position.

mounted on engine
Unfortunately I don't have any pictures of this procedure. but the idea was to get it true and mounted then drill 4 holes for a 3/16" cleco and locate the parts. Here its shown mounted on the engine.

side view
 here is a side view. I couldn't locate the cowl until I had the spinner mounted. The top surface needs to fair cleanly into the spinner loft.

3/4 view
this is my favorite view. The inlet is still rough trimmed, and the cowl has not been sanded. You can see the witness line where the upper cowl mold was attached to the lower cowl mold.

that's it for now.


I prepped the lower cowl for layup by applying 7 coats of Carnauba mold release wax. Followed by a buildup of Rexall Partall 10 PVA release film. Since the lower cowl needs a surface extension into the upper cowl, that mold was also recoated.

upper and lower molds joined

After both molds are joined together I shot more primer onto the surfaces. You want to be ready to do the layup immediately after the primer flashes off. This will give you the best mechanical and chemical bond to the resin.
The seam between the molds is stuffed with modeling clay.

modeling clay
The clay is pushed into the seam and then gently scraped off with a sharpened tongue depressor. nothing will stick to the clay because its an oil base clay. This will keep the laminate near this joint from becoming porous and it makes a smooth transition between the mold halves.

final layup

As I mentioned earlier in this blog, I need to make an inner flange that will be secondarily bonded to the lower cowl and form a flange that the upper cowl will sit on. In order to do this, I need to lay up the lower cowl at least 2 inches beyond its normal trim. Remember the actual parting line between both cowls is etched into the upper cowl surface. This is the reason I needed to join the upper cowl.  Here is an image of the initial lay up. the surface is covered with polyester fabric, the same fabric I cover the plane with. In this case its functioning as Peel ply. I like to lay a final layer of Peel ply on my wet lay-ups especially at any ply splices. The peel ply beautifully transitions these ply's together. The other reason is in the area of the overlap flange, I want a smooth surface with no rough ply edges.

Its HOT today in Texas, humid too. after I finished the lay up, my tee shirt was soaked clean thru. I actually wrung a cup of sweat out of this thing!!! I can hardly wait for fall. The high temp keeps dropping one degree per day. By mid October, it will be wonderful again in Texas!!!

multi tool trimmer

I released the upper cowl and here is what is left. Even in this high heat, I needed to let the laminate cure for 48 hours. Its important that the resin become fully cured almost to the point of being brittle. The tool I like using for trimming is a vibrating multi tool. I use a grout cleaner as a cutter. There is carbide grit bonded to a steel disk. This will wear thru beautifully and with very good control. The actual final trim of the cowl is one inch below the trim that you see.

inner flange being released
Here you can see the secondary flange lay up I did on top of the original cowl lay up. I laid 7 layers of wax on the inside of the cowl before I laid up the inner flange. Here I am parting the inner flange from the cowl. once I have released the inner flange, I will re trim the cowl an inch lower at the scribed trim line.

more inner flange

here is another view of the inner flange. You can see that it will lock in and "key" perfectly to the inside surface (IML) of the cowl.

bonding the inner flange

Here is the inner flange being bonded to the IML of the cowl. you want to make sure you use an actual structural adhesive here and not thickened laminating resin. . Structural adhesives all have an elastomeric polymer added to the matrix. This dramatically increases the peel strength of the bond. This will keep the flange from peeling away from the cowl. I used T-88 structural adhesive.

Trial Fit
Time for a trial fit up. I joined both halves and temporarily attached them with Clecos. Eventually I will replace each Clecos with a bonded nut plate. Before I can actually set the position of the cowl, I need to mount the spinner and backing plate. The cowl must sit with a 3/16" gap between the outer surfaces and the spinner. the surfaces must all be true and faired. So before I can finish mounting the cowl, I had to lay up a new spinner and prop backing plate. Fortunately I already have the molds.

Another view
The cowl I about 6 inches too long, this is why I made the extension surfaces on the master model. I wanted to be sure I had more than enough excess.

Backing plate mold
here is the backing plate mold. This will get 3 ply's of .014" thick Graphite. The Lathe will be used to true it up and trim it.

Spinner mold laid up

here is the spinner laid up in its mold. the white fabric is peel ply. This is a very hard mold to release because you cant start a edge peel. But I coated the mold with Wax and PVA. Once cured, I will submerge this mold overnight in water and hopefully it will float out after the PVA dissolves.

Backing plate being trimmed

I made two wooden backing plates and clamped the backing plate between them. The hole in the backing plate is much larger than the center bolt. This is so I can use a dial run out gage and adjust the position of the backing plate until it runs true.

More in a few days or so!!!!

First part

I finished laying up the upper cowl. I have a neat trick that works very well that I will share. The process of contact wet lay up, that is so familiar with the home built airplane crowd, is by its nature, very porous. If you were to lay up directly on a mold, and then shoot a coat of primer, the surface would be covered with thousands of pin holes. These are the result of the paint being wicked into the laminate due to capillary action. your next task would be to spend hours filling and fairing with either more primer or with spot putty. Very time consuming. So the way you avoid this is to shoot the mold with your primer BEFORE you do the lay up. Here are some pictures of the lay up steps.

Adding trim scribe
In this picture I am scribing the trim line. The trim line has reversed during the molding process from a low to a high. I need to scribe it into the mold surface before I wet sand the mold to finish the final surface. If I didn't scribe it, I would lose it in that step. The mold was wet sanded with 200 grit paper to remove all surface imperfections. The mold was then seasoned with 7 coats of carnauba paste wax.

PVA being shot
In this picture I am again shooting Partall 10 PVA. (Poly Vinyl Acetate)  This is a water soluble release film. I have never lost a part when I use Partall 10. I really swear by this stuff. To properly apply it you must build up thickness gradually. In the case of this mold and in this weather (90 degrees F) it took 6 light coats. The PVA is allowed to fully dry between coats. In this weather it only took about 5 minutes per coat. Do not get anxious and try to shoot a single thick coat. You will get runs and the coat will be ruined. The next step after the PVA cures is to shoot the high solids primer. Because the PVA is water soluble. it needs to be applied just prior to lay up. if you let is set overnight in any kind of humidity, it will start to bubble up. I shot the primer until the surface was fully coated. I shot 4 light coats, again building the thickness slowly. Once the primer had dried (about 20 minutes) I laid up 3 ply's of Rutan 285 BID cloth.  It took 20 hours to cure sufficiently to the point where I could release it.

Upper cowl untrimmed
Here is the final result. The part released with a full film of PVA. I few minutes under the hose and the surface was totally clean. This is why I have never had a part stick with PVA film. If a part appeared to be "Stuck" all you have to do is peel back an edge and pour some water into the opening. eventually the water will wick completely through the PVA. at that point nothing is holding it on. The next step is to lay up the lower half. That will be a little more difficult because I need to attach the upper cowl mold to the lower cowl mold. The lower cowl trims to the same line as the upper. I also need to lay up an overlap flange. I have a good idea for this and I will cover that and a slick method of trimming fiberglass that completely eliminates the possibility of edge damage and delamination. I will cover that next

Finished Mold

The mold is finally finished. I know I'm going through a lot of extra work, but who knows, I might want to sell some cowlings some day. I waited until the following Saturday to start the opposite side of the mold. I needed about 5 uninterrupted hours to make the opposite side. Once the Gel coat was shot, there is about a  1.5 hour wait until it cures sufficiently to finish the lay up.
Duy Tran
My friend Duy Tran came out on Saturday to give me a hand. I met Duy when he came to Triumph as an Engineering Intern from the University of Texas@ Arlington. Duy worked for me as an Intern and later as a graduate engineer. He is one hell of a kid. He is very enthusiastic and always has a smile on his face, as is evident in this picture. He has a desire to learn all aspects of aircraft design and construction and I really appreciate all the help he has given me.

The first step in completing the back side is to coat the plaster with release agent. I am using Partall 10 by Rexor Corp. This is a water based PVA agent that will dissolve with water. I have never had a trapped part when I used Partall 10. I swear by it.

5 PVA coats
the old header boards were removed and the tool shot with PVA. there are 5 coats on this tool. I usually shoot light coats and build up the film slowly. If you shoot too heavy a coat the PVA will rum and its ruined. You have to wait until it dries completely and the peel off the film and start all over.

The next step before lay up is to create indexing pins that will align the tool halves together so the seam can be minimized. I do this by using a 1/2" drill and cutting only the beveled tip.

Registration pins
If I had thought a little more about this step, I would have laid up 4 additional small mat pads in each location. As it was, some of the areas were so thin I broke thru and required a repair patch of Bondo on the back side. Later after the second side s laid up, I will drill 1/4" holes between these pins to clamp up the tool. These holes are coated with Carnauba wax before the gel coat is shot. after the gel coat is shot and mostly cured, they will be filled with Bondo before they mat is laid up

Registration Pins
Here is what they look like before Gel coat is shot.

Time to shoot Gel coat. I am using a Gel Coat applicator gun. This is a special gun with a disposable paper cup. It was well worth the money. There really is no other way to apply this thick gel coat resin.

Shooting Gel Coat
so the tool gets shot with Gel Coat. I shot 28 oz. on this side. Based on previous experience in this 100 degree weather, I modified the mixing ration slightly by reducing it. The last thing I need is to have it cure in my gun. It can be cleaned, but it will take hours. I shot a nice even coat. I will turn a fan on after I shoot to blow the vapor out my main door. I need t let this sit for about 1.5 hours until its almost fully cured. It was noon about this time, so Duy and I ran out to get some Vietnamese sandwiches ( Bahn Mi). Duy says this means "Elbow Sandwiches" in Vietnamese. They are made on an excellent light French Baguette. They kind of look like your fore arm with an elbow.

Final Gel Coat layer
Here is what it looks like fully covered. when it hardens in 1.5 hours, I will form a bondo fillet along the surface of the old header board and fill in all of the registration pin holes.

now the lay up begins. we are nice and content with a belly full of Elbow sandwiches!! I did something on this cowl a little different this time.

I decided to fill the inlet with Bondo so I would not have to lay up inside the lip. This made life much easier. Duy's job at this point is to mix the resin as I need it. We limit the mixture to 28 oz. the rule is a new container, mixing stick and brush each time. I don't want to risk previously mixed resin setting off later batches. Again with lessons learned from the previous cowlings, I cut back on the hardener ratio. The mat is cut into 12" x 12" squares. they are laid up with a 1.5" overlap. The reason I do this is to limit the amount of movement I will need to push the fibers around. Mat is made from non direction fiberglass roving held together with a starch binder. The mat needs to be wetted out before the starch will dissolve. until it does, it cannot be pushed to contour. I purposely limit how much contour the mat sees. if the contour is  great, I cut down the size of the mat. Its important to work fast at this stage. I don't want mat that isn't formed and rolled to cure in place. I use industrial Polyester Resin. My supplier is one who services the counter top and pool spa manufactures, The industrial resin does not have any cobalt additive. A lot of commercial resin available at auto parts stores are loaded with Cobalt. this gives the resin a purple tint. The Cobalt is a cure accelerator, and the last thing I need at this point.

Final Lay up
the technique I use to lay this mat is to first wet the surface under the Mat. This helps hold it in place when I add further resin to the top surface. I will place about 4 sheets and then come back to the first sheet. I then use a serrated roller to work out the wrinkles and the air. I let Duy try his hand and he quickly got the hang of it. Its important to get all of the air out of the mat and not have any unsupported gel coat  that will crack. I laid 3 layers of mat on this tool.

bolt hole drilled and edge trimmed
In this heat it took about 2 hours to fully cure. I got out my Milwaukee Sawzall and trimmed the flange back. I have about 2" of overlap left. I then drilled a series of 1/4"holes to lock both parts together. I decided that the plaster was going to get trashed after this, so I didn't care if I damaged it removing the tools. One tool is sufficient to lay up the lower cowl, but the second tool will have to be added to the first lay up the upper cowl.

Finished tool
The tool is released and then cleaned with water to remove traces of the PVA. The surface is wet sanded with 320 grit paper until perfectly smooth. The constant reversal of surfaces in this process means that the final surface finish gets better and better. Lows become highs and highs become lows. sanding ridges are easily removed at this stage. The only line I want to keep is the trim line that is now a resin ridge. I will carefully rescribe that line back into the mold. Next step is the cowl lay up!!

More Cowl. Cowl mold.

I cannot believe how many Russian subscribers I now have!!!  Welcome!
On Saturday I swapped labor with my friend Michelle. She needed a new Radiator installed in her Subaru, I needed help doing the lay up on the cowl mold. Michelle used to work for me at Triumph Vought. I was her lead engineer on the Embraer 190.195/175 Rudder and Elevator Program. We both were the first two people assigned to that program. We spent quite a few months together in San Jose Dos Compos Brazil. The home of Embraer and Santos Dumont, the early Brazilian aviation pioneer. Michelle and I did all of the preliminary design and lay out of these control surfaces. I met Michelle when we were both studying to get our Pilots license. I am quite satisfied with my private Pilots license, but Michelle had a much higher calling than me. She wants to be a Mission Pilot for MAF or JAARS. In order to do this she needs a commercial pilots license and an A&P license. She needs tail dragger time and about 500 hours. So at my suggestion she bought a damaged 1946 Taylorcraft and has been working this past year on its restoration. Michelle is one ambitious woman!!

This is right at the start of the cowl lay up. We had just finished swapping out her radiator. It was over 100 degrees on Saturday so we started early so we could be in the shade of the shop.

The tool had been previously prepped for the Gel coat with a coat of Partall 10 PVA release agent. This is a water soluble release agent, and like I have mentioned before, I have never had a part stick when I used PVA

ready for mixing
Michelle's main task was to keep me supplied with mixed resin. Because of the heat, I cannot mix a large batch. It would quickly go into an exothermic reaction and turn to jelly. The mold required 4 28 oz. cups of resin and one 28 oz. cup of gel coat. Gel coat is polyester resin mixed with Calcium Sulfate. This creates a thixotropic mixture that has superior surface hardness. I have a special gun that is designed to shoot gel coat.

shooting Gel Coat

here you can see me and the gel coat gun. I have a fan blowing all the overspray out the main door. the idea here is to get an even but thick coat. Its not too critical if the gel coat starts to run, the surface of the tool is already covered.

initial layer
Once the Gel Coat started to tack off to the point it was about 3/4 cured, I wiped a Bondo filler radius all along the corner between the master and the header board. The following layers of mat and fiberglass cannot lay up into a sharp inside corner. This step is required to ensure that the gel coat has adequate support and will not crack. The first layer down on the fresh gel coat was a five 1.5 oz. layer of cloth. I cut a yard of cloth up into small 6" x 6" squares so they would be easier to handle. I like to use a ply of thin fiberglass against a gel coat surface. this again ensures that the gel coat surface is being supported. After the initial layer is added, I follow up with fiberglass mat. The mat has been held together with a starch binder, before you can move the fibers around, the mat needs to be wetted out. I like to have resin on the surface that will draw up into the mat, but I usually brush on additional and let it absorb the resin. once its wetted out, the mat is rolled with lay up roller to move the fiber and eliminate air bubbles. The rollers work very well.

I added 3 layers in total. It only takes about 2 hours before the tool is completely cured. I have modified my plan slightly. I was going to release this mold and then move the boards 3 inches to the opposite side, but when I tried to release the tool, the master started to crack on the good side. rather than risk any damage to the master, I have decided to lay up the next tool to abut this one.

opposite side ready to go
I removed the tooling boards and shot the surface with PVA. Its all ready to go. I need to get a helper to do this side. I will update the Blog when I finish the other side.

Cowling continued

I have finished extending the cowl surfaces to the table. This was a ton of mostly useless work. The plaster master was built slightly beyond the trim line, but the cheek cowls may or may not have been made long enough. I figured that I would just do a tangent extension of all the surfaces and then there wouldn't be any question if  the mold was big enough.

Extended surfaces
The surfaces were extended with Bondo. Like I said, a ton of useless work.

The next step was to seal the plaster. A couple of coats of Shellac thinned with Alcohol are brushed onto the surface. The dry plaster absorbs this like a sponge. Its important to seal the plaster so the release agents do not soak into the surface. My friend Duy came out Saturday to help. After the shellac dries a number of coats of Carnauba mold release wax is applied. Between each coat water is sprayed on and power buffed out. This is known as "spit shining" in the military. In reality its called water hardening. It creates a tougher surface finish for the wax and a release plane. I put 4 coats on the mold and hardened each of them. After the wax was applied, a fillet of Bondo was laid at the table base.
Duy adding Shellac

Bondo fillet
This is added so there will not be  any voids in the tight corner. The fiberglass mat will not lay up in a sharp 90 degree corner. The gel coat needs to have a solid backing or the surface will crack out. A void at the surface will cause gel coat cracking. After the fillet was laid, I scribed the master at the cowling trim line. Normally a mold is made such that both halves part at the same plane, but in this case, I want the upper and the lower mold to overlap each other by 1 1/2 " Both molds will have the same transferred scribe line for the final trim. I need to make an overlap flange for the lower cowl. In order to do this I want to lay up the actual part in the lower cowl mold. I will let that cure then I will put down a layer of silicon based peel ply and then lay up the overlap flange on the inside of the actual cowl. Since the cowl mold overlap the trim by 1 1/2" the overlay flange will be in the correct position. I will then trim the lower cowl and then bond on the overlap flange. This saves me 4 more intermediate tooling steps.
The next step is to construct the parting plane. I will cover this step with a little more detail because the clay trick is really neat and I want to show the detail of how to do it.

This is the beginning of the mold plane. I am using 1/8" tempered Masonite. I bought a sheet on Saturday and was planning to leave it in the back of my truck until I needed it on Sunday. On Sunday afternoon I went to retrieve it and it was gone!! I thought I was losing my mind too!!! Then I realized it probably vibrated out of the back of the camper shell on my truck. So I went to buy another one and sure enough, I found my original sheet busted up alongside the road out in the boonies. Because its not nice to "Mess with Texas" I cleaned it up and added it to my burn pile. Tempered Masonite has a nice smooth finish. The surface is still porous, so it too needs to be wax sealed. I rough cut the Masonite and you can see a few gaps between the Master and the template These are easily filled with modeling clay. the Template is attached to the master with small daps of Bondo. This is why the master was waxed with Carnauba wax.

Modeling clay

You can get this clay at any crafts store of fiberglass supply shop. being very generous, roll up some pieces and stuff it into the seal all along the edges of the template boards. Overfill all of the Gaps.

In order for the clay to stay in the gap, the back side of the board must have a tongue depressor hot glued to cover the gap.

Gaps covered

here you can see the tongue depressor covering a gap and the daps of Bondo holding on the board.

After the gaps are filled make a wooden scraper from a tongue depressor. sand the edge square and then add a sharp bevel.
Beveled tongue depressor

you can buy Tongue depressors by the carton from Aircraft spruce. Its cheaper that stealing them from the doctors office given the co-pays these days!!!

After the gaps are filled its time to scrape away the excess clay. Take your time and slowly work into the clay lump. Use the template to keep the scraper flat and square to the surface, The results are very   clean and work quite well.

Before and After
This picture shows the clay before (upper) and after scraping (lower)

filled gap

this shows how well a large gap can be filled and why its not critical that the fit up be exact between the master and the template. The next step is to wax the template with Carnauba and then spray PVA release agent on the template and the plaster. I will cover that step and the mold lay up in the next update. I have to order the PVA so it may be a few days.

More Cowl Plaster master

When I left off I had just released the Plaster male master from the female plastic splash. The male master had inlet inserts incorporated into it. I removed the inserts and exposed the inlet cavity. This really worked quite well, but I did not like the inside junction near the spinner. So I modified the master by sweeping bondo with a larger circular drag. After a ton of sanding, this is what the inlet now looks like.


You can see the larger circular fillets I added on the inside with the blue colored Bondo. I set the master on top of my welding table. It has a 1/4" thick flat steel plate for a surface. I coated this surface with carnuba wax and then made a wooden support and using Bondo, I temporarily attached the plaster to the table. I set the spinner plane level, I need to set up a set of waterlines and stations that I can use to scribe the trim line into the plaster. This will transfer to the tool as a positive resin line, which will then transfer to the final part as a negative scribe mark. 

The surface finish of the plaster is perfect. But if it gets scratched, its not the end of the world, scratches will become small resin ridges in the lay up mold, I usually wet sand the molds with 400 grit paper, this will knock off any resin ridges. 

There is quite a gap between the master model and the table. I want to use this space to extend the surfaces. Its always a good idea to have excess tool surfaces that are set beyond the final trim line. In a production environment these would be used for the vacuum bag seal surface. 

Here is a side profile with the old spinner in place. I like the lines!!!  This should end up looking pretty good. The spinner was designed originally for the MZ-34 engine. This engine was a much more compact design and placed the spinner much closer to the firewall. Since I didn't want to remake the spinner and the backing plate lay up tools, I elected to stay with the original. That presented a real challenge when I reset the upper surface contour. It turned out ok, but it basically determined the center line of the crankshaft for this new engine mount position. The real problem was the lower lines blending into the existing fuselage lines. If I had stayed with the original fuselage line, the cowl would have had an inverted curve and looked terrible. So I re-faired the fuselage by creating two false longeron lines and increasing the depth of the cowl. The results however speak for themselves. 

foam block extension surfaces
So here is where I'm at right now. I blocked up the gap at the base with my floral foam.  I will saw and sand the foam until the surface is at or slightly below the extension surface. I will then sweep some plaster over the foam to stabilize it and then follow up with a final sweep of Bondo to finish the surface. Its pretty tough right now getting a lot of work done, in the late afternoon its been over 95 degrees and the heat index is over 106. So I probably wont get this next step finished until this week end when I can get out to the shop early before the heat builds. Texas is a wonderful place to live, 9 months out of the year!!!  From late June until early September however, it's hotter than hell!!!